Investment bankers are a key part of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) because they work to determine the appropriate value of the companies involved in the merger or acquisition. In this case, the banker represents either the sell side or the buy side. However, investment bankers also participate in deal sourcing where they will research the market and initiate a conversation with companies, proposing potential deals. Here, investment bankers often work closely with Corporate Development teams.
In both cases, as the bankers work to predict values of companies, they spend a great amount of time looking at how these values might shift (for the better or worse) by producing financial models based on different variables.
Read more how investment banking data rooms help to proceed this.
- Closely studying and tracking trends in M&A in order to assist the seller with its timing and overall strategy
- Pinpointing appropriate potential buyers
- Contacting potential buyers and acting as the liaison between the two parties
- Creating a bidding process
- Selecting a buyer
- Participating in due diligence
- Negotiating the deal
- Determining the value of potential targets
- Examining synergies
- Developing a bid
- Negotiating the deal
Investment banking fees have quite a few variables. At the broadest level, the fee will depend on the type and size of the deal. In addition, some investment bankers require a retainer (also known in the industry as an “engagement fee”). The percentage the banker walks away with at the end of the deal greatly depends on the size of the deal.
According to investmentbank.com, mid to lower market deals should expect to pay their investment bankers based on the Lehman or double Lehman formula (for even smaller deals), which states the bankers will receive 10% of the first million.
The Aligned Method is another way fees are determined. Some believe this method provides more of an incentive for the banker to negotiate the best possible deal. This scale has the investment banker earning 1.75% of the first fifty million.
The following is an overview of the M&A process from an investment banker’s perspective:
1. Develop an acquisition/exit strategy - this includes M&A criteria, analysis of M&A trends, and appropriate targets/acquirers. This may be done for a specific company, or the investment bankers may begin the process and then reach out to prospective buyers/sellers.
2. Connect to the buyer or seller - investment bankers often work with Corporate Development to get through gatekeepers and begin a meaningful conversation with the C-suite executives or owners on the other side of the deal.
3. Conduct a valuation analysis - once a connection has been made between companies and both parties have chosen to continue down the M&A road together, the investment banker will continue to evaluate prospective targets.
4. Begin negotiations - if working for the buy-side, the investment banker will help the buyer develop and deliver an appropriate offer.
5. Assist with due diligence - during diligence, investment bankers continue to dive deeply into the financials and often will serve as one of the major sources of communication between the buy-side and the sell-side.
6. Lead the closing and settlement of final terms - investment bankers are largely responsible for negotiating the final terms of the deal.
Virtual data rooms (VDRs) are a tool most investment bankers use when working on deals, and, in some cases, they may be responsible for the set-up of the VDR; however, investment bankers interested in simplifying and streamlining their M&A process will select a platform that is not only a VDR, but is also equipped with project management software.